Some of the studies I did on Different philosophies back in 1995.

BLAISE PASCAL, I623-I662a

HISTORY: Born in Clermont-Ferrand in Auvergne June 19, 1623. Died, August 19, 1623

Held that the word “proximate power” was: Necessary for doing a [thing] in such a manner that nothing is wanting to performance.”

NEW THOMISTS – Maintained that the word “proximate power” was; “That the righteous require another supply for praying, without which they will never pray. They must have, besides, an efficacious grace bestowed upon all, and which determines their will to pray; and it is heresy to deny the necessity of that efficacious grace in order to pray.”

JANSENISTS ~ (Pascal belonged to this sect) – Maintained that “while the righteous have power to pray, they require nevertheless, an efficacious grace.”

JESUITS ~ Defined “sufficient grace” as “a grace generally given to all men, subject in such a way to free-will that the will renders it efficacious or inefficacious at its pleasure, without any additional aid from God and without wanting anything on his part in order to act effectively; and hence they term this grace, “sufficient” because it suffices of itself for action.”

REFERENCES MADE TO: 1) Doctrine of Molina? 2) Clement VIII 3) Pope Paul V 4) St. Augustine 5) referred to Luther and Calvin’s doctrine as heresy (said a Monk, NOT Pascal). 6) St. Thomas.

ARISTOTLE’S ETHICS1 (taken from third book)

ARISTOTLE ~ “An action cannot be imputed as blameworthy, if it be involuntary.” Involuntary being: “When the will is led inconsiderately, and without mature reflection to embrace or reject, to do or omit to do anything, before the understanding has been able to see whether it would be right or wrong such an action is neither good nor evil because previous to this mental inquisition, view, and reflection on the good or bad qualities of the matter in question, the act by which it is done is not voluntary.”

1pg. 25, from Pascal’s book.

a Information taken from, “Great Books of the Western World, a chronology of the great authors.” Encyclopedia Britannica, INC. First Edition 1952; Second Edition 1990; Fourth Printing, 1993.

Pascal’s book contains: “The provincial Letters;” “pensées;” and “Scientific Treatises.”

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